- 1.1. Identification numbers
1.2. Controls and control devices
+ 1.3. Switches of illumination, turns, a washer and a glass cleaner
1.4. Katalitichesky neutralizer
1.5. Ventilation and air conditioning system
1.6. Climate control system
1.7. Cruise-control system
1.8. A mechanical transmission
1.9. An automatic transmission
+ 1.10. Forward seats
1.11. An arrangement and capacity of bulbs
+ 1.12. Safety locks and electric chains
1.13. Bases of safe operation of the car
1.14. Wheels and tyres
1.15. Corners of installation of wheels
+ 2. Maintenance service
+ 3. Engines
+ 4. Heating, ventilation
+ 5. Fuel system
+ 6. An exhaust system
+ 7. Systems of start, ignition
+ 8. Transmissions
+ 9. Coupling, shaft
+ 10. Brake system
+ 11. A suspension bracket
+ 12. A steering
+ 13. A body
+ 14. An electric equipment
Observance of mentioned below recommendations substantially will raise your safety on roads and will allow to keep a vehicle in good repair.
At the wheel
The competent technics of driving of the car also depends on correct landing of the driver. The negligent, weakened landing (in particular when the driver puts out an elbow of the left hand in a window or leans a body on left дверку, and the steering wheel holds one hand) does not provide constant readiness of the driver for fast and accurate actions in case of sudden change of a situation on road. Correct landing – the driver densely enough leans against a back of a seat, a foot at full выжиме on pedals are extended not completely, and both hands slightly bent in elbow joints, are located on a steering wheel. Body position should be steady, but not intense is prevents fast exhaustion.
Drive easy, holding slightly a wheel. Do not compress it as a vice, to побеления fingers – the excessive effort and a nervous tension only tyre an organism. Take for a rule at movement on direct sites of roads to hold a steering wheel in a range from without ten two to without fifteen three, corresponding to position of hour hands. It gives the chance to conduct the car without any efforts and instantly to react to situation change on road.
Clearness of action of the driver in driving substantially depends on the clothes form, especially during winter time. The clothes should be easy, free and convenient. It is not recommended to apply ski or climbing boots, valenoks, high fur boots. Their bulkiness complicates fast management of pedals. Management of pedals and any footwear high-heeled complicates.
Preparation of the car for movement
Before departure from garage or from a parking lot check up a technical condition of the car. 8–10 minutes spent for it can compensate with interest all losses of time for elimination of malfunctions in a way and will raise your safety. For this purpose:
1. Check up and finish to norm pressure of air in tyres. The pressure difference in tyres of all on 0,2–0,3 kgs/sm2 worsens controllability of the car, and at braking can lead to its drift.
2. Check up oil level in картере the engine and if necessary finish it to norm.
3. Check up levels of cooling, brake and washing liquids and if necessary finish them to norm. Tanks with these liquids are executed from translucent plastic that allows to conduct the visual control behind level.
4. Check up serviceability of signalling devices and lamps of external light devices.
5. Check up work of screen wipers and washers of glasses, a lay brake.
6. Examine a car parking lot. Presence of traces of oils and operational liquids under the car testifies about негерметичности its knots and units. In this case it is necessary to reveal and eliminate the reason of their occurrence.
7. At movement from parking check up serviceability of working brakes.
Tactics of driving of the car
Tactics of driving of the car is an ability to choose a correct mode of movement where the main indicator is speed. Incorrectly chosen high-speed mode appears the most frequent reason of road and transport incidents. Complexity of a correct choice of speed of movement consists that demands the simultaneous account of different factors or, in other words, a complex estimation of conditions in which there is a movement. Ability of the driver completely to cover all set of mobile and motionless objects, important from the point of view of traffic safety, and thus to exclude from the attention all objects not concerning movement which have got in the field of its sight (for example, the publicity boards removed from road of a building etc.) Are the main condition of correct tactics of driving of the car. With the same purpose it is not recommended to hang or крепить in zones of wind and back glasses and on the panel of devices amulets, souvenirs, etc., reducing the review of the driver and in addition distracting not only its attention, but also attention of other participants of movement. Thus it is necessary to remember that with increase in speed of movement the field of vision of the driver decreases. So, the field of vision is equal in rest 120 °, at speed of 30 km/h – 100 °, and at speed of 100 km/h – 40 ° ("tunnel sight").
In no event speed of movement cannot be defined by, whether you hasten or your passengers. It is necessary to acquire firmly it and even in the emergencies to choose speed only according to conditions. In this respect very important quality of the driver is the endurance, allowing to keep calmness and not to give in to someone's wishes to go faster, despite of concrete conditions.
After a long break in driving (the winter period, illness, business trip, etc.) some time for restoration of skills is required. In this connection execute some training departures on sites of roads with the minimum loading by transport.
Be the good psychologist and critically concern the errors at the wheel. Only self-criticism and introspection will help you to avoid repetition of similar errors further.
Overcoming of pools
At movement through pools it is necessary to be extremely attentive as they can hide holes and potholes on which it is possible to damage disks of wheels or a suspension bracket detail. In the event that you move on unfamiliar road, it is better to pass forward other transport, and how it will overcome a pool, it will be possible to judge a road condition. If such possibility is not present, leave the car and any subject (a stick, прутком etc.) measure a pool on a prospective trajectory of movement. Movement through a pool carry out on is minimum possible speed. Dashing overcoming of pools, as a rule, comes to an end with moisture hit on elements of system of ignition and an engine stop.
Movement in rainy weather
The moisture on elements of system of ignition can get and stop the engine at movement on road during a strong rain. And a well-tried remedy for prevention отсыревания elements of system of ignition their preliminary processing by water-repellent preparations of type "Unisma" or "Autogreasing ВТВ-1" in aerosol packing or their foreign analogues is good.
Special attention and care show first minutes after the rain beginning as the moistened dust on a road covering forms the soap film sharply reducing coupling of tyres with road.
Regularly during movement spend a lung притормаживание the car to dry brakes as efficiency of crude brakes sharply falls.
During overtaking include a windscreen screen wiper on the maximum mode is will help to avoid loss of visibility at the expense of possible emission of water from under a wheel of overtaken transport. Such safety measures are desirable for applying and in the event that overtake you.
Do not spend to rainy weather overtaking if the water cloud from under wheels ahead of the going car completely closes the review of a zone of overtaking.
Not to move in a water loop from ahead going cars, increase a distance and reduce speed of movement.
At movement along sidewalks during a rain or after it at journey through pools reduce speed that splashes from under wheels of your car did not get on pedestrians.
Movement in a night-time
With approach of twilight include a passing light of headlights. If your car is painted in dark tone, a passing light include a little earlier as against dark asphalt your car is imperceptible also its occurrence for drivers of counter transport becomes unexpected.
At driving at night the driver sees only the limited site of road and for safe movement special attention is required. It is noticed that with the years the big light exposure for subject recognition is required to the person. For people it is more senior 20 years doubles every 13 years. Hence, the driver at 60-year-old age sees at the night almost in 8 times worse, than in 20-year-old. According to it and speed of movement should decrease I will proportionally increase the driver at night.
In case of blinding by light of headlights of the counter car slow down movement or is better stop, without changing a lane, and include the emergency light alarm system. Be careful of a message the car blindly it it is very dangerous! Do not forget that for ability restoration see after blinding time to 10 seconds can to be demanded
If you follow ahead going car at night and are not going to overtake it, be switched to a passing light and keep from it on such distance not to disturb its driver light of the headlights.
Movement in the winter
Be very cautious on wet or slippery sites of roads – do not suppose sharp braking with risk to block wheels that will inevitably lead to drift. With that end in view operate the car smoothly, without sharp turns. Decrease in speed spend only gradual transition to hill-climbing gears with partial притормаживанием working brakes. If despite of everything the car starts to bring, turn a wheel towards drift, do not touch a coupling and brake pedal and keep calmness.
In crossing places it is expensive often arises наледь at the expense of proslipping of wheels at трогании from a place. Therefore at approach to such places on a dry site in advance begin decrease in speed.
In the winter happens difficultly to get under way from a place on a slippery site. For this purpose include the second or third transfer and, slowly releasing a coupling pedal, smoothly increase engine turns. If you need to execute turn after the car has begun movement, be switched to the first transfer and turn pass at engine work "внатяг", without supposing proslipping of driving wheels.
In mountain district
At movement on lifting in due time pass to the lowest transfers, without supposing engine work "in a tightness" and дергания the car.
On long descents use the engine in a mode of braking with partial use of working brakes. Do not suppose descent with the switched off coupling and use only working brakes, вто will lead to a warming up of brakes and boiling of a brake liquid.
Keep in mind that with increase in height the temperature of boiling of a brake liquid decreases. Boiling of a brake liquid in wheel cylinders means full refusal of working brakes – the brake pedal fails.
If in mountains you wish to stop on parking around viewing platforms or a rest zone after long lifting do not stop at once the engine in order to avoid boiling of a cooling liquid and fuel in the carburettor, and allow to work to the engine of 1-2 mines on the minimum turns of idling. It will facilitate the subsequent start of the engine.
As anywhere, in mountain district keep the right party of road. The smaller width of road and a difficult profile of a line demand большего attention and care. On turns submit sound and light signals. At a stop on lifting or on descent turn out a wheel against the stop that in case of a spontaneous start of motion of the car it has rested against a border of road or other obstacle.
On slippery road do not begin movement on a steep slope while ahead going car will not reach its top.
Learn to brake smoothly, without supposing blocking of wheels. It is even better to use smooth притормаживание working brakes with simultaneous transition to hill-climbing gears. Such reception provides course stability of the car even on slippery sites of roads and, besides, promotes economy of fuel, increases a resource of tyres and brake overlays.
Skilled drivers, irrespective of presence of additional stoplights, expecting possibility of application of working brakes, preliminary pedals of a brake before operation of lamps of stoplights some times concern to pay attention of drivers, moving behind it to be ready to decrease in speed.
The brake way depends on reliability of action of the most brake system, a condition of a protector of tyres, congestion of the car, a profile of road, type and a condition of a road covering, and also from speed of the car. The brake way increases proportionally to a square of speed, i.e. If speed increases twice, the brake way increases four times.
If at the serviceable suspension brackets, the adjusted corners of installation of forward wheels and normal pressure of air in tyres at braking the car withdraws aside and it is necessary for you доворачивать a wheel to keep a movement direction, it is necessary to spend audit of working brakes.
Sitting down for the first time to a wheel of other car, check up on a free site of road work of brakes on speeds 40, 60 and 80 km/h that is necessary for an estimation of a condition of brakes and acquisition of the first skill.
In avoidance "прикипания" brake колодок to drums do not put the car on long parking with the included lay brake.
That brake колодки have not frozen to drums after movement on wet roads at sharp fluctuations of temperatures, do not leave the car on the open area with the tightened lay brake, without having dried a brake smooth braking at movement to parking.
Sharp accelerations and the delays, insufficient or air elevated pressure, neglect to shift of wheels under the scheme, a disbalance, driving on the raised speeds on the uncomfortable roads, incorrectly established corners of forward wheels substantially reduce service life of tyres. On the worn out tyres movement becomes dangerous as during a rain the protector at certain speed has not time to pass water, the tyre runs into a water wedge which drives ahead of itself, and there comes loss of coupling with road (effect of hydroplaning).
Driving of the car equipped with an automatic transmission
At driving of the car equipped with an automatic transmission it is necessary to pay attention to following features:
At dispersal of the car the engine will work with the raised turns that is normal and typical for automatic transmission.
For fast increase in speed of movement it is necessary to press an accelerator pedal against the stop and some time to keep it in this position. The increase in number of turns of the engine and fall of transfer number in a transmission will quickly increase speed of movement of the car.
If pressure upon an accelerator pedal decreases, engine turns will decrease irrespective of speed of movement. This normal phenomenon leading to considerable economy of fuel.